Appendix A:     Table     3.14

     Typical  Categorizations of Drills and Activities according  
     to Pedagogical Gradient:


     STACK          (1971,pp. 133-137)       a.  meaningless
                                             b.  meaningful

     DAKIN          (1973, pp. 47-89)        a.  meaningless
                                             b.  meaningful

     STEVICK        (1971, pp. 394,401)      a.  manipulative
                                             b.  meaningful

     BYRNE          (1976, pp. 33-38)        a.  mechanical
                                             b.  meaningful

     ROBINETT       (1978, pp. 207-211)      a.  mechanical
                                             b.  meaningful
                                             c.  communicative
                                        and...
                                             a.  manipulative
                                             b.  communication

     PAULSTON       (1972)                   a.  meaningless
                                             b.  meaningful
                                             c.  communicative

     COOK       (1972, pp. 122-124)    a.  non-contextualised
                                       b.  semi-contextualised
                                       c.  contextualised
                                       d.  situational

     BEILE     (1979, pp. 115-121)    Communicativity gradient:
                                       a.  non-communicative
                                       b.  (communicative)
       
                                      Contextualisation
                                      gradient:
                                       a.  no contextualisation
                                       b.  dialog-like, but not
                                            contextualisable.
                                       c.  contextualisable

     CANDLIN   (1981, p. 5)            a.  (non-communicative)
                                       b.  communicative



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