Appendix B:  Table  3.12  Variations in Response Set


     1.   This  table  should be interpreted with  reference  to  
     section 3.10.1 of the text

     2.   Symbols and conventions adopted in this table:

     {}   denotes a set

     {R}  Universal response-set
     {r}  Item-specific response-set

          (UPPER CASE denotes universal material
           lower case denotes item-specific material)

     #{R} Inherently explicit response-set (Where there is an
           explicit response-set, it is assumed to be "very 
           small".  Hence, if column 4 is indicated, then 
           column 5 is not.)

     @{R} Actual response-set

     [1]  Multiple-choice response

     {DATABASE}  Use of large-scale database techniques required

     aaa/bbb/ccc/.../nnn/     Possible responses

     aax/aay   Possible responses that differ in form only

     {a}/{b}   Patterned response-set

         1.   No finite response-set                 5.   Very Small response-set
         2.   Universal response-set: {R}            6.   Relatively Small response-set
         3.   Item-specific response-set: {r}        7.   Large, but still finite response-set
         4.   Inherently explicit response-set:#{r}  8.   Patterned response-set 

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.   8.   
     
                                                  Simple Operations

                                                  I.   Insertions into model

                                                  A.   C: --> M:[] 

         ?                              *         1.   3.4       Dacanay   Simple Substitution
                                                       {R}={DATABASE} = {words that collocate with
                                                                             "I'm going"}

              *         *                         3.   3.6       Dacanay   Moving Slot Substitution
                                                       #{R} = @{R} = {[1]/[2]}                                              

              *         *                         6.   3.9       Dacanay   Transposition Transformation
                                                       #{R} = @{R} = {[1]/[2]}
     
                   *    *                         7.   3.10      Dacanay   Expansion Transformation
                                                       #{r} = @{r} = {[1]} / {[1]/[2]} / {[1]/[2]/[3]}...
              
              *         *                         8.   3.11      Dacanay   Expansion Transformation
                                                       #{R} = @{R} = {[1]/[2]/[3]}
         
              *         *                         16.  3.21      Rivers    Double Substitution
                                                       #{R} = @{R} = {[1]/[2]}   

         ?                              *         34.  3.40      Robinett  Simple Substitution
                                                       {R}={DATABASE}={set of objects that can be on tables}

              *         *                         36.  3.42      Robinett  Moving Slot Substitution
                                                       #{R} = @{R} = {[1]/[2]/[3]/[4]}
         
              *         *                         44.  3.60      Cook      Plain Substitution
                                                       #{R} = @{R} = {[1]/[2]/[3]}
          
                  *     *                         45.  3.61      Cook      Sequence Substitution
                                                       #{r} = {aaa/bbb} = {swimming/skating}

         2.   Universal response-set: {R}            6.   Relatively Small response-set
         3.   Item-specific response-set: {r}        7.   Large, but still finite response-set
         4.   Inherently explicit response-set:#{r}  8.   Patterned response-set 

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.   8.   

                   *              *         *     56.  3.118     Stack     Transformation: directed increment
                                                       {r} = {{a}/{b}/.../{n}}
                                                       {a} = right tense, faulty form
                                                       {b} = wrong tense    
                                                       {c} = missing, faulty elements

               *                  *         *     57.  3.120     Stack     Transformation: negation
                                                       {R} = {{A}/{B}/.../{N}}
                                                       {R} = {A} = {aren't/are not/arent/arnt...}
                                                           = {B} = wrong verb form
                                                           = {C} = failure to negate properly

               *             *                    58.  3.125     Stack     Transformation: comparisons
                                                       {R} = {AAA/BBB/CCC} = {ma's/mejor/ma's bien}

                   *              *               69.  3.144     Stack     Question Drill: you-I conversion
                                                       {r} = {aaa/bbb/.../nnn}
                                                           = {do/like it/like music/like it the music...}

                                                  B. E: --> M:C: []

              *              *                     2.   3.5       Dacanay   Correlative Substitution
                                                        {R} = {AAA/BBB} = {do/does}

              *              *                     28.  3.34      Rivers    Type A1 Completion
                                                        {R} = {AAA/AAX/BBB/BBX} = {will/'ll/would/"d}

                   *         *                     29.  3.35      Rivers    Type A2 Completion
                                                        {r} = {aaa/bbb/ccc} = {butcher/seller/meat seller}

              *              *                     35.  3.41      Robinett  Correlative Substitution
                                                        {R} = {AAA/BBB} = {is/are}

                   *              *         *      55.  3.117     Stack     Transformation: verb tenses
                                                        {r} = {a} = improperly formed 
                                                              {b} = wrong tense 
                                                              {c} = wrong agreement                                                       
    
              *              *                     63.  3.132     Stack     Paired Sentence: conditionals
                                                        {R} = {AAA/AAX/BBB/BBX} = {will/'ll/would/'d}

         2.   Universal response-set: {R}            6.   Relatively Small response-set
         3.   Item-specific response-set: {r}        7.   Large, but still finite response-set
         4.   Inherently explicit response-set:#{r}  8.   Patterned response-set 

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.   8.   

              *              *                     66.  3.140     Stack     Fixed Increment
                                                        {R} = {AAA/BBB/CCC} = {a/de/0}    

                   *         *                     67.  3.142     Stack     Analogy Drill: tag questions
                                                        {r} = {aaa/bbb} = {read/reads}    

                   *         *                     68.  3.143     Stack     Analogy Drill: tag questions
                                                        {r} = {aaa/bbb} = {negro/negra}

                                                   C.  C:-->E:-->M:[]

              *              *                     15.  3.20      Rivers    Simple Substitution
                                                        {R} = {AAA/BBB/CCC} = {he/she/they}

                   *         *                     21.  3.28      Rivers    General Conversion
                                                        {r} = {aaa/bbb} = {her/to her}

              *                        *    *      22.  3.29      Rivers    General Conversion
                                                        {R} = {DATABASE} 
                                                            = {nouns that could substitute for "it"}
                                                            = {proper nouns that could subsitute for "her"}
                                                              etc.
                                                             
                   *              *                40.  3.46      Robinett  Reduction Transformation
                                                        {r} = {aaa/bbb/.../nnn} = {combinations of mow/the/lawn}

              *              *                     41.  3.47      Robinett  Response Transformation
                                                        {R} = {AAA/BBB} = {few/little}
                   
                   *         *                     46.  3.62      Cook      Lexical Pair Substitution
                                                        {r} = {aaa/bbb} = {young/old}
          
              *              *                     47.  3.63      Cook      Lexical Sets Substitution
                                                        {R} = {AAA/BBB/...} = {Days of week}

              *              *                     48.  3.64      Cook      Lexical Meaning Substitution
                                                        {R} = {AAA/BBB} = {annoying/nice}

              *                        *           49.  3.65      Cook      Pronoun Substitution
                                                        {R} = {DATABASE}
                                                            = {proper names marked tagged for pronoun}

         2.   Universal response-set: {R}            6.   Relatively Small response-set
         3.   Item-specific response-set: {r}        7.   Large, but still finite response-set
         4.   Inherently explicit response-set:#{r}  8.   Patterned response-set 

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.   8.   

         *                                         50.  3.66      Cook      Knowledge Substitution
                                                        {r} = 1 = Shakespeare
     
              *              *                     51.  3.106     Stack     Replacement
                                                        {R} = {AAA/BBB} = {it/them}

         *                                         52.  3.111     Stack     Replacement
                                                        {R} = 1 = y

              *                   *                53.  3.114     Stack     Replacement
                                                        {R} = {AAA/BBB/.../NNN} = {everyday counting numbers}


                                                   D.   M:+C: --> M:-- + []  <--E:


                   *         *                     27.  3.33      Rivers    Type A Deletion
                                                        {r} = {aaa/bbb} = {any/some}
                                                                             {come/came}
                                                        
                                                   E.   E: -->  M:[]
     
         *                                         26.  3.32      Rivers    Type B Expansion

         *                                         30.  3.36      Rivers    Type B Completion


                                                   II.   Removal of redundant elements  M:+Rd: --> M:--
       
                                                   Not Present in Simple Operations

                                                   III.   Re-order of model elements    M:[1][2] --> M:[2][1]

              *         *                          4.   3.7       Dacanay   Transposition Transformation
                                                        #{R} = @{R} = {1-2-3 -> 6 combinations}

              *         *                          5.   3.8       Dacanay   Transposition Transformation
                                                        #{R} = @{R} = {1-2/2-1 = 2 combinations}

              *         *                         11.  3.14      Dacanay   Integration Transformation
                                                           #{R} = @{R} = {1-2/2-1 = 2 combinations}

         2.   Universal response-set: {R}            6.   Relatively Small response-set
         3.   Item-specific response-set: {r}        7.   Large, but still finite response-set
         4.   Inherently explicit response-set:#{r}  8.   Patterned response-set 

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.   8.   

              *         *                         59.  3.127     Stack     Transformation: word order
                                                       #{R} = @{R} = {6 combinations}
        
              *         *                         60.  3.129     Stack     Question Formation
                                                       #{R} = @{R} = {2 combinations}

                                                  IV.  Production of new elements, based on model  M:-->R:

         *                                        24.  3.31A     Rivers    Restatement Conversion

         *                                        31.  3.37      Rivers    Question-Answer Practice

              *                        *          32.  3.38      Rivers    Question-Answer Practice
                                                       {R} = {DATABASE} = {Animal names with questions & answers}

         *                                       33.  3.39      Rivers    Rejoinder Exercise

                   *              *              42.  3.54      Cook      Typical Drill
                                                      {r} = {aaa/bbb/.../nnn}
                                                          = complex template

                   *              *              70.  3.145     Stack     Question Drill: narration sequence
                                                      {r} = {aaa/bbb/.../nnn}



                                                  MULTIPLE OPERATIONS:


                                                  I.   Insertion + Insertion


              */   /*        */*                  9.   3.12      Dacanay   Transposition & Expansion
                                                       {R1} = {AAA/BBB} = {DO/DOES}
                                                       {r2} = {aaa/bbb} = {like/likes}

              /*   */        */*                  17.  3.22      Rivers    Correlative Substitution
                                                       {r1} = {aaa/bbb} = {bring/brings}
                                                       {R2} = {aaa/bbb/...} = {POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS}

         2.   Universal response-set: {R}            6.   Relatively Small response-set
         3.   Item-specific response-set: {r}        7.   Large, but still finite response-set
         4.   Inherently explicit response-set:#{r}  8.   Patterned response-set 

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.   8.   

                   */*           */*        */*   64.  3.134     Stack     Paired Sentence: tense linkages
                                                       {r1} & {r2} = {aaa/aax/bbb/bbx}
                                                       = wrong form, wrong tense, wrong agreement
          
                                                  II.   Insertion, then Insertion

              */  /*    */   /*                   18.  3.24      Rivers    Multiple Substitution
                                                       #{R1} = @{R1} = {[1]/[2]/[3]}      
                                                        {r2} = {aaa/bbb} = {bring/brings}, {too many/too much}

              */  /*         */*                  19.  3.26      Rivers    General Conversion
                                                       {R1} = {AAA/BBB} = {do/does}
                                                       {r2} = {aaa/bbb} = {has/have}

              1/4  2/3       1/2/3/4              25.  3.31B     Rivers    Restatement Conversion
                                                       {R1}, {R4} = {AAA/BBB/...} = {Subject Pronouns}
                                                       {r2} = {aaa/bbb} = {have/had}
                                                       {r3} = {aaa/bbb} = {am/was}

              */*       */   /*                   37.  3.43      Robinett  Moving Slot & Correlative Substitution
                                                       #{R1} = @{R} = {[1]/[2]}
                                                       {R2}  = {AAA/BBB/...} = {tense & person combinations of
                                                                                     "is buying"}
                   */*       */*                  65.  3.136     Stack     Paired Sentence
                                                       {r1} = {aaa/bbb} = {speak/speaks}
                                                       {r2} = {aaa/bbb} = {polite/politely}

                                                  III.   Re-order, then  Re-order

              */*       */*                       12.  3.15      Dacanay   Integration & Transposition
                                                       #{R1} = @{R} = {1-2/2-1} = 2 combinations
                                                       #{R2} = @{R} = {1-2/2-1} = 2 combinations


                                                  MIXED OPERATIONS


                                                   I.   Insertion + Removal

              */  /*   */   /*                    10.  3.13      Dacanay   Reduction Tranformation
                                                       #{R1} = @{R} = {[1]/[2]}
                                                        {r2} = {aaa/bbb/...} = {words in sentence}

         2.   Universal response-set: {R}            6.   Relatively Small response-set
         3.   Item-specific response-set: {r}        7.   Large, but still finite response-set
         4.   Inherently explicit response-set:#{r}  8.   Patterned response-set 

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.   8.   

              /*   */   */*                       14.  3.16      Dacanay   Integration Transformation with Reduction
                                                       {r1} = {aaa/bbb/...} = {words in sentence}
                                                       #{R2} = @{R} = {1-2/2-1}

              /*   */   */*                       23.  3.30      Rivers    Combination Conversion
                                                       {r1} = {aaa/bbb/...} = {words in sentence}
                                                       {R2} = {that/0}

                                                  II. Insertion, then Removal, then Insertion

              1/3  2    1/2    /3                 62.  3.131     Stack     Paired Sentence: relative pronouns
                                                       #{R1} = @{R} = {[1]/[2]/[3]}
                                                        {r2} = {aaa/bbb/...} = {words in sentence}
                                                        {R3} = {AAA/BBB/CCC} = {that/who/0}

                                                  III.  Re-order, then production of new element

              */*       */        /*              38.  3.44      Robinett  Transposition Transformation
                                                       #{R1} = @{R} = {1-2/2-1}
                                                        {R2} = {AAA/BBB/.../NNN} = {Yes/No/Yes, she can;...}
                                  
              */*       */        /*              39.  3.45      Robinett  Integration Transformation
                                                       #{R1} = @{R} = {1-2/2-1}
                                                        {R2} = {AAA/BBB/.../NNN} = {Yes, I do/No, I don't}

                                                   IV.  Production of new elements, then insertion

              /*   */   /*     */                 71.  3.146     Stack     Question Drill: directed answers
                                                       {r1} = {aaa/bbb/ccc...} = {possible responses}
                                                       #{R2} = @{R} = {[1]/[2]}

                                                   CHOICE OF TEMPLATE

                                                   I.   Insertion or Re-order

              1/2a/2b         1/2a/2b             20.  3.27      Rivers    General Conversion
                                                       {R1} = {AAA/BBB} = {template A/template B}
                                                       #{R2a} = @{R2a} = {1-2/2-1}
                                                        {R2b} = {AAA/BBB} = {do/does}

         2.   Universal response-set: {R}            6.   Relatively Small response-set
         3.   Item-specific response-set: {r}        7.   Large, but still finite response-set
         4.   Inherently explicit response-set:#{r}  8.   Patterned response-set 

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.   8.   

                                                   II.  Insertion (type A) or Insertion (type C)

              a/   /b        /b                    61.  3.130     Stack     Chain Transformation
                                                        a.   {R} = 1 = [1]
                                                        b.   {R} = {AAA/BBB} = {doesn't/don't}
         



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