Appendix B:  Table  3.11  Variations in Cue Presentation


     1.    This  table  should be interpreted with reference  to  
     section 3.7.3 of the text.

     2.    Symbols and conventions adopted in this table  (Items  
          glossed in previous tables are not repeated):

     Cf:  A formalized cue

     P:   A separate prompt, in addition to the cue
     ----------------------------------------------------------

          1.   No explicit Cue:  formalized drill  5.   Cue separate:  isolation of cue from cue framework              
          2.   No explicit Cue:  other reason      6.   Partially formalized drill
          3.   Cue imbedded in model:                         (instruction needed to isolate cue)
          4.   Cue separate: alone                 7.   Separate Prompt needed

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.        
     
                                                 Simple Operations

                                                 I.   Insertions into model

                                                 A.   C: --> M:[] 

                        *                        1.   3.4       Dacanay   Simple Substitution
                                                      C:  away,later...

                        *              *         3.   3.6       Dacanay   Moving Slot Substitution
                                                      P:  The [train] leaves [tomorrow] at seven.                                              
                                                          The [train] leaves [tonigh] at seven.
                                                      C:  tonight, bus...

                        *                        6.   3.9       Dacanay   Transposition Transformation
                                                      C:  for me, to me...
     
                        *                        7.   3.10      Dacanay   Expansion Transformation
                                                      C:  two,paper,pretty,yellow...
              
                        *                        8.   3.11      Dacanay   Expansion Transformation
                                                      C:  always,always,regularly,now...
         
                        *                        16.  3.21      Rivers    Double Substitution
                                                      C:  If you want it, he'll sell it to you...

                        *                        34.  3.40      Robinett  Simple Substitution
                                                      C:  pen,box...

          2.   No explicit Cue:  other reason      6.   Partially formalized drill
          3.   Cue imbedded in model:                         (instruction needed to isolate cue)
          4.   Cue separate: alone                 7.   Separate Prompt needed

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.        

                        *                        36.  3.42      Robinett  Moving Slot Substitution
                                                      C:  he,house,last week,sold...
         
                        *                        44.  3.60      Cook      Plain Substitution
                                                      C:  whisky, hate...
         
                             *    *              45.  3.61      Cook      Sequence Substitution
                                                      Cf: "use second element"
                                                      C:  I can't decide whether I like swimming or skating best.
                                                      C:  I can't decide whether I like dancing  or walking best.
         
                        *                        56.  3.118     Stack     Transformation: directed increment
                                                      C:  il se repose, elle gagne...

         *                             *         57.  3.120     Stack     Transformation: negation
                                                      P:   They're reading.
                                                           He's walking
                                                      Cf:  "make negative" --> not

         *                                       58.  3.125     Stack     Transformation: comparisons
                                                      Cf:    "make comparative" --> mas

                             *                   69.  3.144     Stack     Question Drill: you-I conversion
                                                      C:  Do you like music?
                                                      C:  Do you attend the Sunday concerts?

                                                 B. E: --> M:C: []

                   *              ?    *         2.   3.5       Dacanay   Correlative Substitution
                                                      P:     Where [does] Mary live? --> interlocked
                                                      C:+M:  Where [] Jose' live?
                                                             Where [] the boys live?

                   *              ?    *         28.  3.34      Rivers    Type A1 Completion
                                                      P:     If I see him I [will] tell him.
                                                      C:+M:  If I   saw him I [] tell him.
                                                             If you took it I [] tell him.

                   *                             29.  3.35      Rivers    Type A2 Completion
                                                      C:+M   A person who builds houses is a [].
                                                             A person who sells meat    is a [].

          2.   No explicit Cue:  other reason      6.   Partially formalized drill
          3.   Cue imbedded in model:                         (instruction needed to isolate cue)
          4.   Cue separate: alone                 7.   Separate Prompt needed

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.        

                   *                   *         35.  3.41      Robinett  Correlative Substitution
                                                      P:     Mary [is] studying. -->  interlocked  
                                                      C:+M:  Mary and John [] studying.
                                                             My brother    [] studying.

                   *              *    *         55.  3.117     Stack     Transformation: verb tenses
                                                      P:     Alain [commande] un bon diner.
                                                             Roger [parle] a` ses amis. 
                                                      Cf:    "Use passe' compose'"
                                                      C:+M:  Alain [] un bon diner hier.
                                                             Roger [] a` ses amis hier.

                   *              *    ?         63.  3.132     Stack     Paired Sentence: conditionals
                                                      Cf:    "Use a form of "will"
                                                      C:+M:  If the weather is   nice, I [] go downtown.
                                                             If the weather were nice, I [] go downtown.

                   *                             66.  3.140     Stack     Fixed Increment
                                                      C:+M:  El aprende  [] hablar espan~ol.    
                                                             El recuerda [] hablar espan~ol.
                                                             Le gusta    [] hablar espan~ol. 

                   *                   *         67.  3.142     Stack     Analogy Drill: tag questions
                                                      P:     I [read] a lot of books.    
                                                             How about Paul?
                                                             They [eat] a lot.
                                                             How about Carol?
                                                      C:+M:  Paul  [] a lot of books too.
                                                             Carol [] a lot too. 

                   *                   *         68.  3.143     Stack     Analogy Drill: tag questions
                                                      P:     La pluma es [negra].
                                                             Y el la'piz?
                                                             El profesor es [alto].
                                                             Y la profesora?
                                                      C:+M:  El la'piz     es [].
                                                             la profesora es [].    

          2.   No explicit Cue:  other reason      6.   Partially formalized drill
          3.   Cue imbedded in model:                         (instruction needed to isolate cue)
          4.   Cue separate: alone                 7.   Separate Prompt needed

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.        

                                                 C.  C:-->E:-->M:[]

                             *                   15.  3.20      Rivers    Simple Substitution
                                                      C:     Do you see my uncle  over there?
                                                             Do you see my sister over there?

                             *                   21.  3.28      Rivers    General Conversion
                                                      C:     Janet read her mother the letter.
                                                             Janet read the letter to her. (interlocked)

                             *                   22.  3.29      Rivers    General Conversion
                                                      C:     I gave it to her.
                                                             I gave her a car. (must be generated)

                             *                   40.  3.46      Robinett  Reduction Transformation
                                                      C:     She's going to have someone mow the lawn.

                             *                   41.  3.47      Robinett  Response Transformation
                                                      C:     Do you need any chairs?
                                                             Do you need any help?
                   
                             *                   46.  3.62      Cook      Lexical Pair Substitution
                                                      C:     Is Bill young?
                                                             Is John rich?

                             *                   47.  3.63      Cook      Lexical Sets Substitution
                                                      C:     I'm seeing him on Tuesday.
                                                             He's meeting her on Saturday.

                        *                        48.  3.64      Cook      Lexical Meaning Substitution
                                                      C:     It's raining!
                                                             The sun's come out!

                             *                   49.  3.65      Cook      Pronoun Substitution
                                                      C:     I suppose he  was there.
                                                             I suppose she was there.

                             *                   50.  3.66      Cook      Knowledge Substitution
                                                      C:     Who wrote Hamlet?
                                                             Who was Queen Victoria's husband?

          2.   No explicit Cue:  other reason      6.   Partially formalized drill
          3.   Cue imbedded in model:                         (instruction needed to isolate cue)
          4.   Cue separate: alone                 7.   Separate Prompt needed

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.        

                             *                   51.  3.106     Stack     Replacement
                                                      C:     I am buying the typewriter.
                                                      C:     I am buying the books.    

         ?                   *                   52.  3.111     Stack     Replacement
                                                      Cf:    "replace cue with ` y '"
                                                      C:     Allons au cinema.
                                                             Allons a` la gare.

                             *                   53.  3.114     Stack     Replacement
                                                      C:     Paul has  twelve records.
                                                             Sue bought three cars.

                                                 D.   M:+C: --> M:-- + []  <--E:


         *                               *       27.  3.33      Rivers    Type A Deletion
                                                      P:     They haven't [any] coffee.
                                                             She  didn't [come].
                                                      Cf:    "Delete negative elements" --> n't
                                                        
                                                 E.   E: -->  M:[]
     
              *                                  26.  3.32      Rivers    Type B Expansion

         *                                       30.  3.36      Rivers    Type B Completion
                                                      Cf:    "Use infinitive construction" --> (not) to ...


                                                 II.   Removal of redundant elements  M:+Rd: --> M:--
       
                                                 Not Present in Simple Operations

                                                 III.   Re-order of model elements    M:[1][2] --> M:[2][1]

                                                 See Chart 3.9  Models 

         *                                       4.   3.7       Dacanay   Transposition Transformation
                                                      Cf: "Change to question" = [1][2][3] --> [2][1][3]

         *                                       5.   3.8       Dacanay   Transposition Transformation
                                                      Cf: "Change position of modifiers"  =  [1][2] --> [2][1]

          2.   No explicit Cue:  other reason      6.   Partially formalized drill
          3.   Cue imbedded in model:                         (instruction needed to isolate cue)
          4.   Cue separate: alone                 7.   Separate Prompt needed

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.        

         *                                       11.  3.14      Dacanay   Integration Transformation
                                                      Cf: "Combine the questions without transposing or 
                                                           reducing any of the elements" = [1][2] --> [2][1]

         *                                       59.  3.127     Stack     Transformation: word order
                                                      Cf: "Begin with adverb" = [1][2][3] --> [3][2][1]
        
         *                                       60.  3.129     Stack     Question Formation
                                                      Cf:  "Make  a question by inversion"
                                                            = [1][2] xxx -->  [2][1]  
        
                                                 IV.  Production of new elements, based on model  M:-->R:

                        *         *              24.  3.31A     Rivers    Restatement Conversion
                                                      Cf: "Follow Instructions given in Cue"
                                                      C:  Tell George your name is Ronald.
                                                          Ask Alice where she's going.
                                                          Ask her to wait for you.

                        *         *              31.  3.37      Rivers    Question-Answer Practice
                                                      Cf: "Answer the questions truthfully"
                                                      C:  Why didn't they come home before midnight?
                                                          Do you often stay out late at night?

                        *         *              32.  3.38      Rivers    Question-Answer Practice
                                                      Cf:  "Answer the question or provide a question as
                                                                indicated"
                                                      C:  (generated)
                                                          Does it live on a farm?
                                                          Is it an elephant?
                                                          What is it?
                                                          Give me a question to distinguish a rhinoceros from an
                                                                  elephant.

                         *         *              33.  3.39      Rivers    Rejoinder Exercise
                                                       Cf:  "Respond to the cue with an appropriate rejoinder"
                                                       C:  Didn't get the job.  Just got there as the manager
                                                                  went off to lunch.
                                                           See you at the bus stop.

          2.   No explicit Cue:  other reason      6.   Partially formalized drill
          3.   Cue imbedded in model:                         (instruction needed to isolate cue)
          4.   Cue separate: alone                 7.   Separate Prompt needed

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.        

                         *         *              42.  3.54      Cook      Typical Drill
                                                       Cf:  "Answer the questions in the negative"
                                                       C:  Is Bill playing tennis tonight?
                                                           Is Susan helping her mother this evening?

                         *         *              70.  3.145     Stack     Question Drill: narration sequence
                                                           Cf: "Answer the questions truthfully"
                                                           C:  Did she like her red cape?
                                                               Did she use the Cadillac?

                                                  Complex Drills:

                                                  MULTIPLE OPERATIONS:


                                                  I.   Insertion + Insertion


                    *                    *        9.   3.12      Dacanay   Transposition & Expansion
                                                       P:     He   [likes] coffee.
                                                              Mary [buys]  instant coffee.
                                                       C:+M:  He   [] n't [] coffee.
                                                              Mary [] n't [] instant coffee.

                    *                    *        17.  3.22      Rivers    Correlative Substitution
                                                       P:     He  [brings] [his] lunch.
                                                              You [bring] [your] lunch. (interlocked)
                                                       C:+M:  You           [] [] lunch.
                                                              John and Mary [] [] lunch.

                               *    *    *        64.  3.134     Stack     Paired Sentence: tense linkages
                                                       Cf: "first element to imperfect, second to passe'
                                                                compose'" = quand
                                                       P:  Alain [e'tudie].  Je    [rentre].
                                                           Marc  [parle] .  Roger [vient] .
                                                       C:+M:  Alain [] quand je [].
                                                              Marc  [] quand je [].

          2.   No explicit Cue:  other reason      6.   Partially formalized drill
          3.   Cue imbedded in model:                         (instruction needed to isolate cue)
          4.   Cue separate: alone                 7.   Separate Prompt needed

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.        
                                                  II.   Insertion, then Insertion

                    /*   */              *        18.  3.24      Rivers    Multiple Substitution
                                                       P:    [She]   [brings] [too many] [pencils] to [school].
                                                             [Peter] [brings] [too many] [pencils] to [school].      
                                                             [Peter] [brings] [too much] [money]   to [school].        
                                                       C1:   Peter, money, the library...
                                                       C2:   Peter [] [] pencils to school.
                                                             Peter [] [] money   to school.

                  /*            */   */          19.  3.26      Rivers    General Conversion
                                                      C1:  Peter [has]  a new car.
                                                           They  [stop] at stop signs.
                                                     C1f: "Convert to questions" --> do/does
                                                      C2:  Does Peter [] a new car.
                                                           Do   they  [] at stop signs.

                  /*           */   */           25.  3.31B     Rivers    Restatement Conversion
                                                      C1:  She said, "I've just arrived but I'm leaving...
                                                           She asked, "Why are you  looking at her like...
                                                     C1f: "Restate using indirect speech" -> Pronoun Conversion
                                                                                             Rules
                                                      C2:  She said she [] just arrived but 0 [] leaving...
                                                           She asked me why I [] looking at [] like...

                   /*   */             */        37.  3.43      Robinett  Moving Slot & Correlative Substitution
                                                      P:   [She] [is buying] a car [today].
                                                           [She] [bought]    a car [yesterday]. (interlocked)
                                                     C1:  yesterday, they...
                                                     C2:  She [] a car yesterday
                                                          They [] a car yesterday


                   /*        */        /*        65.  3.136     Stack     Paired Sentence
                                                      P:   The boy is [polite].
                                                           The girl is [careful].
                                                     C1:  How does he  speak?
                                                          How does she walk?
                                                     C2:  The boy speaks [].
                                                          The girl walks [].

         

          2.   No explicit Cue:  other reason      6.   Partially formalized drill
          3.   Cue imbedded in model:                         (instruction needed to isolate cue)
          4.   Cue separate: alone                 7.   Separate Prompt needed

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.        
                                                  III.   Re-order, then  Re-order

         *                                       12.  3.15      Dacanay   Integration & Transposition
                                                      Cf:  "Combine the questions, putting the yes/no
                                                                question first"



                                            MIXED OPERATIONS


                                                   I.   Insertion + Removal

                     *                             10.  3.13      Dacanay   Reduction Tranformation
                                                        C:   noisy,...

           */             /*                       14.  3.16      Dacanay   Integration Transformation with
                                                                            Reduction
                                                        C1f: "Combine the two sentences"
                                                        C2:  too..to

          *    *                                  23.  3.30      Rivers    Combination Conversion
                                                       c1f: "Combine the two sentences"

                                                  II. Insertion, then Removal, then Insertion

          *    *                                  62.  3.131     Stack     Paired Sentence: relative pronouns
                                                       c1f: "Combine the two sentences"

                                                  III.  Re-order, then production of new element

          */             /*        /*   */        38.  3.44      Robinett  Transposition Transformation
                                                       P:   She can swim
                                                            She can play tennis     
                                                     C1f: "Make a question"
                                                     C2f: "Answer the question"
                                                      C2:  Can she swim?
                                                           Can she play tennis?

          2.   No explicit Cue:  other reason      6.   Partially formalized drill
          3.   Cue imbedded in model:                         (instruction needed to isolate cue)
          4.   Cue separate: alone                 7.   Separate Prompt needed

         1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.        
                                  
          */             /*        /*   */        39.  3.45      Robinett  Integration Transformation
                                                       P:   Who is she?  Do you know?
                                                            How far is it to Chicago?  Do you know?
                                                     C1f: "Make a question"
                                                     C2f: "Answer the question"
                                                      C2:  Do you know who she is?
                                                           Do you know how far it is to Chicago?

                                                  IV.  Production of new elements, then insertion

                         *         *              71.  3.146     Stack     Question Drill: directed answers
                                                       C1f:  "Answer the question affirmatively..."
                                                       C2f:  "...using the cue word."
                                                        C1:  Does Robert study his lessons?
                                                             Does George work on Sundays?
                                                        C2:  always,sometimes,...

                                                   CHOICE OF TEMPLATE

                                                   I.   Insertion or Re-order

          *                                       20.  3.27      Rivers    General Conversion
                                                       Cf:  "Change the statements into questions" 
                                                            = [1][2]xxx --> [2][1]xxx
                                                            = C: do/does --> M:[] 

                                                  II.  Insertion (type A) or Insertion (type C)

                         *    *                   61.  3.130     Stack     Chain Transformation
                                                       a.   C:        read,...
                                                       b.   C:+M:     She [] study.
                                                                                                        


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