3.4       Example:  Simple Substitution
         #1   Model:    I'm going home.
              Cue:                away.
              Response/ I'm going away.
         #2   Model:
              Cue:                later.
              Response: I'm going later.

                         (Dacanay, 1967, p. 112)

     3.5       Example:  Correlative Substitution

         #1   Model:    Where does Mary live?
              Cue:                 Jose'
              Response/ Where does Jose' live?
         #2   Model:
              Cue:                 the boys
              Response: Where do the boys live?

                         (Dacanay, 1967, p. 113)

      3.6      Example:  Moving Slot Substitution

         #1   Model:    The train leaves tomorrow at seven.
              Cue:      tonight
              Response/ The train leaves tonight at seven.
         #2   Model:    
              Cue:      bus  
              Response: The bus leaves tonight at seven.

                         (Dacanay, 1967, p. 116)

     3.7       Example:   Transposition Transformation

         Instruction:   Change the statement to a question.

         #1   Model:    The girl is ready.
              Response: Is the girl ready?

         #2   Model:    The boy is coming.               
              Response: Is the boy coming?

                         (Dacanay, 1967, p. 117)

          Instruction:     Change  the position of  the  sentence                        

          #1   Model:    This morning he was here.
               Response: He was here this morning.

          #2   Model:    Occasionally he comes here.
               Response: He comes here occasionally.

                         (Dacanay, 1967, p. 117)

     3.9       Example:  Tranpsosition Transformation -3
         #1   Model:    Mother made me a dress.
              Cue:      for me.
              Response: Mother made a dress for me.

         #2   Model:    My friend gave me the pen.
              Cue:      to me.
              Response: My friend gave the pen to me.

                         (Dacanay, 1967, p. 118)

     3.10      Example: Expansion Transformation -1

                   "Order of Modifiers"

          #1   Model:    The napkins are on the table.
               Cue:      two
               Response/ The two napkins are on the table.
          #2   Model:    
               Cue:      paper
               Response/ The two paper napkins are on the table.
          #3   Model:
               Cue:      pretty
               Response/ The  two pretty paper napkins are on the  
          #4   Model:
               Cue:      yellow
               Response: The two pretty yellow paper napkins  are  
                         on the table.

                         (Dacanay, 1967, p. 120)

                   "Placement of Adverbs of Frequency"

          #1   Model:    He's on time.
               Cue:      always
               Response: He's always on time.

          #2   Model:    I write to them.
               Cue:      always
               Response: I always write to them.

          #3   Model:    I write to them
               Cue:      regularly
               Response: I write to them regularly.
                         I regularly write to them.

          #4   Model:    He's leaving.
               Cue:      now
               Response: He's now leaving. 
                         He's leaving now.

                         (Dacanay, 1967, p. 124-125)

     3.12      Example: Transposition & Expansion 

          #1   Model:    He likes coffee.
               Cue:      not
               Response: He doesn't like coffee.

          #2   Model:    Mary buys instant coffee.
               Cue:      not
               Response: Mary doesn't buy instant coffee.

                         (Dacanay, 1967, p. 127)

     3.13      Example:  Reduction Transformation

          Model:    The  children who were making a lot of noise  
                    were sent to bed.
          Cue:      noisy
          Response: The noisy children were send to bed.

                         (Dacanay, 1967, p. 128)

          Instruction:   Combine   the  two  questions   without  
                         transposing  or  reducing  any  of  the  

          Model:     Who made the report to the principal?
                     Do you know?
          Response:  Do  you  know who made the  report  to  the   

                         (Dacanay, 1967, p. 130)

     3.15      Example:  Integration   Transformation   with  

          Instruction:   Combine the two questions,  putting the  
                         yes/no question first.

          Model:     Who is he?
                     Do you know?
          Response:  Do  you  know  who he is? 

                         (Dacanay, 1967, p. 131)

     3.16      Example:  Integration   Transformation   with  

          Instruction: Combine the two sentences using

          Model:     Mary is sick.
                     She can't study her lesssons.
          Response:  Mary is too sick to study her lessons.

                         (Dacanay, 1967, p. 130)

     #1   Model/Cue:     Do you see my uncle over there?

          Response:      Yes, he's across the road.

     #2   Model/Cue:     Do you see my sister over there?

          Response:      Yes, she's across the road.

                         (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 123)

     NOTE:               Referred to in the text as:
                         3.20(RIVERS).  Similarly for all of the  
                         Rivers & Temperley examples.

    3.21      Example:  Double Substitution Drill

     #1   Model:    If I find it / I'll give it to you.

          Cue:      If you want it

          Response/ If you want it / I'll give it to you.
     #2   Model:
          Cue:      he'll sell it to you

          Response: If you want it / he'll sell it to you.

                         (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 127)

     3.22      Example:  Correlative Substitution

     #1   Model:    He brings his lunch.

            Cue:    You

          Response/ You bring your lunch.
     #2   Model:    
          Cue:      John and Mary

          Response: John and Mary bring their lunch.

                         (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 128)

     #1   Model:    She brings too many pencils to school.

          Cue:      Peter

          Response/ Peter brings too many pencils to school.
     #2   Model:

          Cue:      money

          Response/ Peter brings too much money to school.
     #3   Model:    

          Cue:      library

          Response: Peter brings too much money to the library.

                         (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 129)

     3.26      Example:  General Conversion

          Instruction:   Convert  the  following statements  into  

     #1   Model:    Peter has a new car.

          Response: Does Peter have a new car?    or
                    Has Peter got a new car?

     #2   Model:    They stop at stop signs
          Response: Do they stop at stop signs?         

                         (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 131,132)  

                           ("Mixed Drill")

          Instruction:   Change  the  following  statements  into  

     #1   Model:    John and I are sitting in the classroom.

          Response: Are John and I sitting in the classroom?

     #2   Model:    The actress lives in Canada.

          Response: Does the actress live in Canada?

                         (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 131) 

     3.28      Example:  General Conversion -3 
                          (Reduction Conversion)

          Instruction:    Replace  the  indicated word  with  the  
                         correct pronoun. 

     #1   Model:    Janet read her mother the letter.

          Cue:      her mother

          Response/ Janet read her the letter.
                    Janet read the letter to her.
     #2   Model:

          Cue:      the letter

          Response: Janet read it to her

                         (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 133)

                    (Expansion Conversion) 

          Instruction:   Replace  the  pronoun indicated  with  a  
                         substantive word.

     #1   Model:    I gave it to her.

          Cue:      it

          Response/ I gave a car to her.             
                    I gave her a car.
     #2   Model:

          Cue:      her

          Response: I gave a car to Janet.

                         (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 133)     

     3.30      Example:  Combination Conversion

          Instructions/Cue:  Combine each of the following pairs  
     of  sentences  into one acceptable sentence,  using  "that"  
     where necessary and omitting it where possible.   Make  the  
     first sentence the main clause.

     #1   Model:    Give me the keys.
                    I left you the keys.

          Response: Give me the keys I left you.  

     #2   Model:    The car is over there.
                    I bought the car yesterday.
          Response: The car I bought yesterday is over there.

     #3   Model:    Don't close the door.
                    The door has just been painted.

          Response: Don't close the door that's just been

                         (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 136)

      #1   Cue:          Tell George your name is Ronald.

           Response:     George, my name is Ronald.

     #2    Cue:          Ask Alice where she's going.

           Response:     Where are you going, Alice ?

     #3    Cue:          Ask her to wait for you.

           Response:     Wait for me, please.

                         (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 137)

                         [ Wait, please.
                           Alice, wait !
                           Alice, wait up !
                           Just a minute, Alice.
                           Hold on for a second, please.
                              etc. ] 

     3.31      Example:  Restatement Conversion -2

     Instruction:   Restate  the  following  quotations,   using  
                    indirect speech. 

     #1    Model:   She said, "I've just arrived but I'm leaving  
                    in a few minutes."

        Response:   She  said  she  had  just  arrived  but  was  
                    leaving in a few minutes."

     #2    Model:   She  asked,  "Why are you looking at me like  
                    that ?"

        Response:   She  asked me why I was looking at her  like  

                         (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 137)

     #1   Model/Cue:     The man crosses the street.

     #2   Model/Cue:     The  tired  old man  crosses  the  busy  

     #3   Response/
          Model/Cue:     The   busy  business  man  crosses  the  
                         street twice a day.

                         (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 140)

     3.33      Example:  Type A Deletion

     Instruction:   Delete the negative elements in the following  
                    sentences, making any necessary changes.

     #1   Model:    They haven't any coffee.

          Response: They have some coffee.

     #2   Model:    She didn't come.

          Response: She came.

     #3   Model:    You came, didn't you ?

          Response: You didn't come, did you ?
                    You came, did you ?

                         (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 140)

     Instructions:  Vary   the  final  segment  from  future  to  
                    conditional, according to the first segment

     #1   Model:    If I see him I'll tell him

          Cue:      If I saw him ...

          Response/ If I saw him I'd tell him
     #2   Model:

          Cue:      If you took it ...

          Response/ If you took it I'd tell him
     #3   Model:    

          Cue:      If she comes ...

          Response: If she comes I'll tell him

                         (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 141)

     3.35      Example:  Type A2 Completion

     Instructions:  Complete  the following statements with  the  
                    appropriate occupational term

     #1   Model:    A person who drives a cab is a cab driver.

          Cue:      A person who builds houses ...

          Response/ A person who builds houses is a builder
     #2   Model:    

          Cue:      A person who sells meat ...

          Response: A person who sells meat is a butcher
                         (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 141)

     Instructions:  Invent a completion containing an infinitive  
                    construction for each sentence you hear

     #1   Cue:      She has decided ...

          Response: She has decided to marry him
                    She has decided not to marry him
                    She has decided to leave the country
                    She has decided to take a job

     #2   Cue:      You needn't ...

          Response: You needn't go to school today
                    You needn't pay me yet
                    You needn't tell me your secrets

                              (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 142)

     3.37      Example:  Question-Answer Practice

          (A  Film  about  the adventures of a  group  of  young  
          people in Boston)

     #1   Cue:      Why didn't they come home before midnight?

          Response: They  didn't  come home because  there  were  
                    fireworks over the river.  It was the Fourth  
                    of July.      

     #2   Cue:      Do you often stay out late at night?

          Response: No,  I  go  home early because I  am  always  

                               (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, pp 146-147)

               "In  Twenty  Questions one person (A)  thinks  of  
     someone  or something.   By asking eliminating questions to  
     which  A may reply only yes or no,  the players narrow  the  
     field  of  possibilities until they are able to  guess  the  
     person or object in question."  (Rivers & Temperley,  1978,  
     p. 145)

     3.38.2    Computer Example:  Answer-Question Practice

          Animal (Apple Demonstration Program)


     1.   Computer: Think of an animal.  I will try to what it  
                    Press Return to Begin

     2.   Computer: Does it live on a farm ?

     3.   Student:  No.

     4.   Computer: Is it an elephant ?

     5.   Student:  No.

     6.   Computer: I do not know this animal.  What is it ?

     7.   Student:  A rhinoceros.

     8.   Computer: Give   me   a  question  to  distinguish   a  
                    rhinoceros from an elephant.

     9.   Student:  Does it have a horn ?

     10.  Computer: For a rhinoceros, is the answer Yes or No ?

     11.  Student:  Yes.

     12.  Computer: Thank you.


     1.   Computer: Think of an animal.  I will try to what it  
                    Press Return to Begin

     Instruction:   Listen   to  the  following  sentences   and  
                    respond  with an appropriate exclamation  or  

     #1   Cue:      Didn't get the job.   Just got there as  the  
                    manager went off to lunch.

          Response:  Tough luck !
                     Too Bad !
                     That's too bad !
                     Sorry about that !

     #2   Cue:      See you at the bus stop.

          Response:  Ok.

                     Can't make it.

                         (Rivers & Temperley, 1978, p. 145)

     3.40      Example:  Simple Substitution

          Instructions:  Substitute   the  given  word  at   the  
                         indicated place in the model.

     #1   Model:    The book is on the table.

          Cue:      pen

          Response/ The pen is on the table.
     #2   Model:    

          Cue:      box

          Response: The box is on the table.

                              (Robinett, 1978, p. 48)

          Instructions:  Substitute   the  given  word  at   the  
                         indicated  place in the model and  make  
                         whatever  changes are necessary to  the  

     #1   Model:    Mary is studying.

          Cue:      Mary and John

          Response/ Mary and John are studying.
     #2   Model:    

          Cue:      My brother

          Response: My brother is studying.

                              (Robinett, 1978, p. 49)

     3.42      Example:  Moving Slot Substitution  (Robinett)

          Instructions:  Substitute  the  given  word  at   the  
                         appropriate place in the model 

     #1   Model:    She bought a car yesterday.

          Cue:      He

          Response/ He bought a car yesterday.
     #2   Model:    

          Cue:      house

          Response: He bought a house yesterday.

                              (Robinett, 1978, p. 49)

          Instructions:  Substitute   the  given  word  at   the  
                         appropriate place in the model and make  
                         whatever    resultant    changes    are  

     #1   Model:    She is buying a car today.

          Cue:      yesterday

          Response/ She bought a car yesterday.
     #2   Model:    

          Cue:      They

          Response: They bought a car yesterday.

                              (Robinett, 1978, p. 49)

     3.44      Example:  Transposition Tranformation

          Instructions:  a.   Transform   the  statement  into  a  
                         question, then 
                         b. answer the question.

     #1a  Model:    She can swim.

          Response/ Can she swim?
     #1b  Model:    

          Response: Yes, she can
                    No, she can't

     #2a  Model:    She can play tennis.

          Response/ Can she play tennis?
     #2b  Model:    

          Response: Yes, she can
                    No, she can't

                              (Robinett, 1978, p. 50)

          Instructions:  a. Combine the two questions into one
                            question, then 
                         b. answer the question.

     #1a  Model:    Who is she?
                    Do you know?

          Response/ Do you know who she is?
     #1b  Model:    

          Response: Yes, I do.
                    No,  I don't

     #2a  Model:    How far is it to Chicago?
                    Do you know?

          Response/ Do you know how far it is to Chicago?
     #2b  Model:    

          Response: Yes, I do.
                    No, I don't.

                              (Robinett, 1978, p. 50)

     3.46      Example:  Reduction Transformation

          Instruction:   Paraphrase  each  sentence  as  in  the  
                         example below:

          She's going to have someone paint the garage.
          She's going to have the garage painted.

     #1   Model:    She's going to have someone mow the lawn.

          Response: She's going to have the lawn mowed.

     #2   Model:    She's going to have someone fix the sidewalk.

          Response: She's going to have the sidewalk fixed.

                         (Robinett, 1978, p. 51)

          Instructions:  Answer  the following questions in  the  
                         affirmative,  using  "just  a  few"  or  
                         "just a little", as required.

     #1   Model:    Do you need any chairs?

          Response: Yes, just a few,  please.

     #2   Model:    Do you need any help?   

          Cue:      Yes, just a little, please

                              (Robinett, 1978, p. 52)

     3.48      Example:  Mechanical Drill 

          Instructions:  Substitute  the following words in  the  
                         sentence   and  make  the   appropriate  
                         change in their form.

     #1   Model:    John is taller than Bill.

          Cue:      old

          Response/ John is older than Bill.
     #2   Model: 

          Cue:      big

          Response: John is bigger than Bill.

                              (Robinett, 1978, p. 208)

          Instructions:  Answer    the    following    questions  
                         according to the information  contained  
                         in the picture.

     (Picture  of  several  people,  showing  height  and  citing  
     weight, name, and age)

     #1   Model/Cue:    Who is older, Susie or David?

          Response:     Susie.

     #2   Model/Cue:    Who is shorter, Susie or Mary? 

          Response:     Mary.

                              (Robinett, 1978, p. 208)

     3.50      Example:  Communicative Drill 

          Instructions:   Answer    the   following    questions  

     (Obvious  visual information and students' knowledge of each  

     #1   Model/Cue:    Who is older, Susie or David?

          Response:     Susie.

     #2   Model/Cue:    Who is shorter, Susie or Mary? 

          Response:     Mary.

                              (Robinett, 1978, p. 209)

     Instructions:       [Replace the adjective in the model with  
                         the cue given.]

     #1   Model:    the thin student

          Cue:      tall

          Response/ the tall student          
     #2   Model:    

          Cue:      fat

          Response: the fat student

                         (Paulston, 1972, p. 133)

     3.52      Example:  Meaningless Drill -2  

     Instructions:  [Make  the  following active sentences  into  
                    passive ones according to the example: 

                    John kicked the door.
                    The door was kicked by John.]

     #1   Model:    The dog bit the man.

          Response: The man was bitten by the dog.

     #2   Model:    The boing boinged the boing.    

          Response: The boing was boinged by the boing.

                         (Paultson, 1972, p. 135)

               "Association/Fixed Reply Actitity"

     Instruction:   Ask the question suggested by the answer

     #1   Model:    ...for five years.

          Response: How long did he study?

     #2   Model:    ...during March.

          Response: When did he register?

     #3   Model:    ...until four o'clock.

          Response: [Until when did he study?
                     Until what time did he study?] 

                         (Paulston, 1972, p. 134)

     3.54      Example   Typical Drill 

     Instruction:   [Answer the question in the negative]

     #1   Model:    Is Bill playing tennis tonight?

          Response: No, he's not going to play.

     #2   Model:    Is Susan helping her mother this evening?

          Response: No, she's not going to help.
     #3   Model:    Are Mr. and Mrs. Green paying the bill

          Response: [No, they're not going to pay.]
                         (Cook, 1972, p. 122)

     Instruction:   [Substitute the cue for the appropriate word  
                    in the model]

     #1   Model:    John's going to Paris.

          Cue:      He

          Response/ He's going to Paris.
     #2   Model:    

          Cue:      She

          Response: She's going to Paris.
                         (Cook, 1972, p. 123)

     3.56      Example   Semi-Contextualised Drill

     Instruction:   [Use   the  name  from  the  model  in  your  
                    response. in the model]

     #1   Model/Cue:    Fred's going to change his job.

          Response:     Fred?  Changing his job ? 
                        I don't believe it !

     #2   Model/Cue:    Jane's going to clean the car.

          Response:     Jane?  Cleaning the car ? 
                        I don't believe it !
                         (Cook, 1972, p. 123)

     Instruction:   [Respond in the  negative, using the correct  

     #1   Model/Cue:    Are you coming to the party ?

          Response:     No, I'm not. 

     #2   Model/Cue:    But Susan's coming, I'm sure.

          Response:     No, She's not. 

     #3   Model/Cue:    Well I know Basil's going to be there.

          Response:     [No, He's not.] 

                         (Cook, 1972, p. 123)

    3.58      Example   Situational Drill

    Instruction:    [Answer   the   question,   based   on   the  

     #1   Model:    (Student is cleaning blackboard)

          Cue:       What's he doing ?

          Response:  He's cleaning the blackboard.
                     He's working.
                     He's erasing the board.

                         (Cook, 1972, p. 123)

     Instructions:  Respond  to the cue using the model:
                    "I  love ..."

     #1   Cue:      Do you like whisky ?

          Response: I love whisky.

     #2   Cue:      Do you like tea ?

          Response: I love tea.      (Cook, 1972, p. 125)

     3.60      Example:  Plain Substitution Drill -2

     Instructions:  Insert  the cue into the model:
                    "I  love whisky"

     #1   Cue:      whisky

          Response: I love whisky.

     #2   Cue:      hate

          Response: I hate whisky.

     #3   Cue:      He

          Response: He hates whisky.

                         (Cook, 1972, p. 125)

     3.61      Example:  Sequence Substitution Drill

     Instructions:  Insert the second item mentioned in the  cue  
                    into the model "Oh, I prefer ..."

     #1   Cue:      I  can't  decide whether I like swimming  or   
                    skating best.

          Response: Oh, I prefer skating.

     #2   Cue:      I  can't  decide whether I  like  dancing  or  
                    walking best.

          Response: Oh, I prefer walking.

                         (Cook, 1972, p. 125)

     Instructions: Respond to the cue in the negative, using 
                   the model "No, he's (antonym)"

     #1   Cue:      Is Bill young ?

          Response: No, he's old.

     #2   Cue:      Is John rich ?

          Response: No, he's poor.

                                   (Cook, 1972, p. 126)

     3.63      Example:  Lexical Sets Substitution Drill

     Instructions:  Respond  to  the  cue  using  the  model  
                    "Couldn't  you  ....  .....  on  (day+1)  

     #1   Cue:      I'm seeing him on Tuesday.

          Response: Couldn't you see him on Wednesday instead ?

     #2   Cue:      He's meeting her on Saturday.

          Response: Couldn't he meet her on Sunday instead ?

                                   (Cook, 1972, p. 126)

    3.64      Example:  Lexical Meaning Substitution Drill

    Instructions:  Respond  appropriately to the cue  using  
                   "How annoying!" or "How nice!"

     #1   Cue:      It's raining!

          Response: How annoying!

     #2   Cue:      The sun's come out!

          Response: How nice!

                                   (Cook, 1972, p. 127)

     Instructions:  Substitute a name for the given pronoun  
                    in the model "Oh yes, .... was there."

     #1   Cue:      I suppose he was there.

          Response: Oh yes, John was there.

     #2   Cue:      I suppose she was there.

          Response: Oh yes, Mary was there

                                   (Cook, 1972, p. 127)

     3.66      Example:  Knowledge Substitution Drill

     Instructions:  Answer    the    question   using    the  
                    grammatical pattern ".... did" or " ....  

     #1   Cue:      Who wrote Hamlet ?

          Response: Shakespeare did.

     #2   Cue:      Who was Queen Victoria'a husband ?

          Response: Albert was.

                                   (Cook, 1972, p. 127)

     3.68      Example:  Mechanical Substitution Drill  

          Instruction:   [Insert the cue into the model.]

     #1   Model     The dictionary you asked for has been stolen.

          Cue:      Use LOSE

          Response/ The dictionary you asked for has been lost.
     #2   Model

          Cue:      Use BORROW

          Response: The   dictionary  you  asked  for  has   been  

                              (Byrne, 1976, p. 34)

     Visual Aids:   Eight pictures:  a bike,  a car,  a radio,  a  
                    television,  a guitar, a piano, a boat, and a  

     Instructions:  [Make  TRUE statements in connection with  the  
                    above pictures using the models:

                    "A .... costs more than a ...."    or
                    "It is easier to ...... than to ....."]

     #1   Response: A piano costs more than a guitar.

     #2   Response: It  is easier to ride a bike than to drive  a  

                    (Byrne, 1976,  p. 37)

    3.70      Example:  Meaningful Drill -2  (Byrne)

      Context:      Picture of a room full of objects

      Instructions: [Cite two objects in the pattern:

                    "There's a .... near the ...."

                    so as to make a true utterance.]

     #1   Response: There's a bookcase near the door.

                    (Byrne, 1976, p. 37-38)

    3.71      Example:  Special Meaningful Drill (Byrne)

     Visual Aids:   Picture of room full of objects, NOT SHOWN to  

     Instructions:  [Ask  questions  to determine what is in  the  

     #1   Response: Is there a TV in the room ?

          Feedback: Yes

     #2   Response: Is there a clock in the room ?

          Feedback: Yes
                          (Byrne, 1976, p. 38-39)

            Instructions:     Complete the following sentences

     #1     Model:       John was hungry, so ...

            Responses:   ... he had a sandwich.
                         ... he had some biscuits.
                         ... maybe he had some bread and cheese.
                         ... he had some chocolat.

     #2     Model:       Mary was thirsty, so ...

            Responses:   ... maybe she had a cup of tea.
                         ... perhaps she had a glass of water
                         ... she had a glass of beer.

                    (Byrne, 1976, p. 39-40)

    3.73      Example:  Imaginary Situations-1  

     Situation:     I've  just  bought a house.   I haven't  much  
                    money and I'm furnishing it very slowly.    

     Instructions:  Ask  me questions about what I  have  bought,  
                    using  the  pattern  "Have you bought  a  ....  

     #1   Response: Have you bought a bed yet?

          Feedback: Yes, of course I've bought a bed.

     #2   Response: Have you bought a TV set yet?

          Feedback: No, I haven't.

                              (Byrne, 1976, p. 40)

     Situation:     I  hear that George wants to have  a  meeting  
                    tomorrow.  If he rings me, I'll say I'm busy.

     Instructions:  Make your own excuses:

     #1   Cue:      [What will you say ?]

          Response: If he asks me, I'll say I'm not free.

     #2   Cue:      [What will you say ?]

          Response: If he rings me, I'll say I'm not well.

     #3   Cue:      [What will you say ?]

          Response: If he rings me, I'll say it's too soon.

                    (Byrne, 1976, p. 40)

    3.74      Example:  Meaningful Drill-3  

     Context:       Picture  of  room showing people  engaged  in  
                    various tasks.

     Instructions:  [Respond  to the assertions using the pattern:   
                    "No, he/she isn't.  He/she's ......"]

     #1   Cue:      John's reading a book.

          Response: No, he isn't.  He's watching television.

     #2   Cue:      Mary's watching television.

          Response: No, she isn't. She's doing her homework.

                         (Byrne, 1976, p. 41)

    Instructions:  [Infer  from  the statement given the  correct  
                    adjective to place in the model:   "You  must  
                    be ..."]

     #1   Cue:      I've been working all day.

          Response: You must be tired.

     #2   Cue:      I haven't eaten a thing since breakfast.

          Response: You must be hungry.

     #3   Cue:      I haven't had anything to drink either.
          Response: You must be thirsty.

     #4   Cue:      And now I'm going to a party.

          Response: You must be mad.

                    (Byrne, 1976, p. 42)

    3.76      Example:  Get Organized (Concept)  

     Instructions:  Match the term with its description

     TERM                     DESCRIPTION

    #1   a shoplifter         a.   spots shoplifters
                              b.   pinches things from shops
                              c.   has often shoplifted
                              d.   steals  from  the  same   shop  
                              e.   tries to catch shoplifters
                              f.   is stealing things from shops   

    #2   a "regular"              a. --- f.

                         (Candlin, 1981, p. 67)    


     Situation:     Reading:  "The Mystery Object Lands"

     Instructions:  Complete each sentence.

     #1   The mystery object landed ...

          a.   came to rest near an electricity sub-station.
          b.   between 30 feet and 40 feet across.
          c.   on Gibbet Hill.
          d.   sealed the area off from the public.
          e.   saucer-shaped.
          f.   that the object was a Russian spaceship.
          g.   told the police about the mystery object.
          h.   was closed to normal traffic.
          i.   examined the "flying saucer".
          j.   acted on report from a local resident.

     #2   The police ...

                    (Candlin, 1981, p. 68)

    3.78      Example:  Getting Organized (True/False)

     Context:       Reading:  A dialogue about a flying saucer

     Instructions:  Decide  whether the sentences below are  true  
                    or false

     #1   Cue:      There is a thing on Russian Hill.

          Response: False

     #2   Cue:      There is a thing on Gibbet Hill.

          Response: True

                         (Candlin, 1981, p. 70)

                        (Getting Organized)

     Situation:     Twelve  connected cartoon scenes with one  of  
                    the two parts of the dialogue missing.

     Instructions:  Complete  each cartoon dialogue by  inserting  
                    the  appropriate piece of the dialogue  shown  


     #1   "Couple  of chewing gums,  'course you can have it  for  
     #2   "No, sir.  I just did it."
     #3   "The Head smokes."

                    (Candlin, 1981, pp. 72-73)

    3.80      Example:  Multiple Choice  
                        (Getting Organized)

     Context:       Reading:  The text of an interview

     Instructions:  Circle the letter of the correct answer

     #1   Model:    The   police  went  to  see  the   headmaster  

          Cues:     a.   they  wanted to play in the team on  the  
                    b.   the  two  boys' parents did  not  pay  a  
                    c.   two of his boys were caught stealing.
                    d.   Williams,  one  of  his  boys,  stole  a  

                              (Candlin, 1981, p. 75)

                           (Getting Organized)

     Context:        Audio  Aid of horror story,  which  contains  
                    twelve identifiable sounds

     Instructions:   Listen to the tape.   Put the cards into the  
                    order of the sounds you hear. 

               Hollow laughter          Scream
               Scratching               Fire
               Creaking                 Whining
               Tapping                  Guillotine
               Footsteps                Hissing
               Howl                     Dripping
                    (Candlin, 1981, p. 77-78)

                        (Phase I: Getting Organized)

     Situation:     The  teleprinter at Chapeltown Station  isn't  
                    working  properly.   Some information got  in  
                    which didn't belong to the message.
                    (The learner already knows the details of the  

     Instructions:  First cross out the wrong parts, then collect  
                    the  others and put them in the right  order.   
                    Compare your message to the original.

     Cues:          An entire page full of snippets:

                    green jacket
                    scar on forehead
                    his mother said to the police
                    5' 6"

                         (Candlin, 1981, p. 79    A-11)

    3.84      Computer Example:  Memorizing "Cognitive" Language
                                 (Implanting Skills)

     Context:       Spring Cleaning Day:  Pictures of individuals  
                    performing contributory activities.

     Instructions:  Respond  to each question by stating what the  
                    person in the picture will do.

     #1   Cue:      (picture 1)
                    What about you, Richard?

          Response: I'll take the drawing room curtains down.

     #2   Cue:      (picture 2)
                    What about Andrew and Harry ?

          Response: They'll roll up the carpets.

                         (Candlin, 1981, p. 84-85)

                        (Implanting Skills)

     Purpose:  To  learn how to deny something and stressing  the   

     Context:       Learner takes the role of someone accused  of  
                    a crime

     Instructions:  Deny   the  following  assertions  using  the  
                    model:  " XX  's wrong if XX says  that,  sir,  

     #1   Cue:      But  the store detective says he watched  you  
                    taking the tool.

          Response: He's wrong if he says that, sir, honestly.

     #2   Cue:      The   manager  and  the  detective  say   you  
                    admitted everything.

          Response: They're   wrong  if  they  say   that,   sir,  

                         (Candlin, 1981, p. 86)

    3.86      Example:  Picture Stimulus  
                        (Implanting Skills)   

          Context:  Dialogue presented via stylized illustrations  
                    of  what  is  being  said,  using  a  set  of  
                    established symbols.

          Instructions:   Say in words what is illustrated in the  

     #1   Cue:      (Stylized picture of a man looking at a cat)

          Response: The man is looking at the cat.
                    The man sees the cat.

                    (Candlin, 1981, p. 88)

     Instructions:   From  the list of verbs provided,  find  the  
               appropriate  verb  to insert in each blank in  the  
               text.  Use the form "has/have just ..."

     (List of verbs)     

          The  police ----.   They ---- rope  barriers,  ---- the  
     area,   and   ---- the  road.    Hundreds  of  people  ----.   
     Scientists  ---- too.   They  ---- their  instruments.   The  
     Ministry of Defence ---- that eight other craft -----.   The  
     Army ---- several units.

                         (Candlin, 1981, p. 90) 

    3.89      Example:  Restoration - Catchwords  
                        (Implanting Skills)

     Instructions:  From the key words given below, construct the  
                    story of Mr. and Mrs. Shields and their large  

        * Mrs. Dora Shields   *    Mr. Albert Shields, 46 *
        *                5 children                       *
        *                twins                            *
        * Brighton General    *    boilermaker            *
        * Hospital            *    a bit of a shock       *
        *                wanted a large family            *
        *                trouble making ends meet         *

                        (Implanting Skills)

     Context:   Paragraph:   I came home one night.  Fell flat in  
               the dustbins,  'cause I was drunk.   And, well ...  
               there's   this  bloke  ...   he  shouts  from  the  

     Instructions:  Re-tell the story by filling in the blanks.

    #1   Model:   ["I came home one night. ..."]
         Cue:      The young man ----

         Response: came home.

    #2   Model:   ["Fell flat in the dustbins,..."]

         Cue:      He fell ---

         Response: in the dustbins

    #3   Model:   ["...'cause I was drunk. ..."]

         Cue:      because ---

         Response: he was drunk.

                         (Candlin, 1981, p. 94)

    3.91      Example:  Restoration (Gap-text/New-text)  

     Context:  Reading:    Three   dialogue   scenes   concerning  
               Caroline and Roland.

     Instructions:  Imagine   you  are  Caroline.   Complete  the  
                    following  diary  by filling  in  the  blanks  
                    based on the dialogues.


                                        Monday, 25th July

          I  bought  a ------ at the camp shop today  and  met  a  
     smashing  boy.   He's from ----.   His name is -----.   etc.     

                         (Candlin, 1981, p. 96)

                        (Implanting Skills)

     Instructions:   Complete  the following dialogues using  the  
                    word indicated.

     #1   Cue:

          Jack:     Do you like this town?
          John:     It bores me stiff.
          Jack:     -------- ?  (live)
          John:     For 3 months.

          Response: How long have you been living here?
                    How long have you lived here?
                    For how long ..

     #2   Peter:    What's wrong with your bicycle?
          Bob:      It's got a flat tyre.
                    I can't find the hole.
          Peter:    -------- ?  (look)
          Bob:      For 2 hours.

                    (Candlin, 1981, p. 104)

    3.93.1    Example:  Manipulative Drill (Stevick)

    Instructions:  [Re-state  the cue with the verb in  the  past  
                    participle according to the model:   "Haven't  
                    they .... yet ?"]

     #1   Cue:      When will they go ?

          Response: Haven't they gone yet ?

     #2   Cue:      When will they leave here ?

          Response: Haven't they left here yet ?

     #3   Cue:      When will they catch the bus ?

          Response: Haven't they caught the bus yet ?

                         (Stevick, 1971, p. 400)

     Reading:       Paragraph about grocery stores

     Instructions: [Re-state  the cue with the verb in  the  past  
                    participle according to the model:   "Haven't  
                    they .... yet ?"]

     #1   Cue:      When will they buy groceries ?

          Response: Haven't they bought groceries  yet ?

     #2   Cue:      When will they stock the counter ?

          Response: Haven't they stocked the counter yet ?

     #3   Cue:      When will they display the food ?

          Response: Haven't they displayed the food yet ?

                         (Stevick, 1971, p. 402)

    3.95      Example:  Application  Drill  
                        (Meaningful Drill)

          Context:       Scenes of known characters involved  in  

          Instructions:  Describe what the character is doing  in  
                         each scene.

     #1   Cue:      (Scene of girl sleeping)

          Response: Felicity is sleeping.

     #2   Cue:      (Scene of boy taking bath)

          Response: Anthony is having a bath.

                    (Dakin, 1973, p.64) 

                        (Meaningful Drill)

          Context:       The real world.

          Instructions:  Make  a true sentence about each of  the  
                         following people using the pattern:

                         XX plays ...... 

     #1:  Cue:           Paul McCartney

          Response:      Paul McCartney plays the guitar.

     #2:  Cue:           Yehudi Menuhin

          Response:      Yehudi Menuhin plays the violin.

                    (Dakin, 1973, p.65) 

    3.97      Example:  Collocation Drill  
                        (Meaningful Drill)

    Instructions:  [Respond to each of the statements below using  
                    either the model:

                    Good, I'd like to ..... it.    or
                    Good, I like .....]

     #1   Cue:      This is a wonderful book.

          Response: Good, I'd like to read it.

                    Good, I like books.
                                 good books.
                                 wonderful books.  

     #2   Cue:      There's a good film at the cinema this week.

          Response: Good, I'd like to see it. 
                                      go see
                    Good, I like films.      
                                 good films.

                    (Dakin, 1973, p.67) 

                        (Meaningful Drill)

          Instructions: [Restate  the following  sentences  using  
                         the pattern:

                         PRONOUN came  on/by -----.]

     #1   Cue:           Father walked here.

          Response:      He came on foot.

     #2   Cue:           Mother flew here.

          Response:      She came by plane.

                    (Dakin, 1973, p.71) 

    3.99      Example:  Hyponomy Drill  
                        (Meaningful Drill)

     Instructions: [State  the  consequences  of  the  situation,  
                    using the model:

                    There  was/were so many/much GROUP NOUN  that  
                    he/she/I  couldn't  APPROPRIATE VERB  it/them  

     #1   Cue:      The  old woman who lived in a shoe had a  lot  
                    of sons and daughters.

          Response: There were so many children that she couldn't  
                    feed them all.

     #2   Cue:      For dinner, she gave me a huge amount of rice  
                    and chicken.

          Response: There was so much food that I couldn't eat it  

                              (Dakin, 1973, p.74) 

                        (Meaningful Drill)

          Instructions:    Re-state  the  following  propositions  
                    using the model:

                    There's still a lot of ------.

     #1   Cue:      Pala isn't a rich country.

          Response: There's still a lot of poverty.

     #2   Cue:      Pala isn't a healthy country.

          Response: There's still a lot of disease.

                         (Dakin, 1973, p.77) 

    3.101     Example:  Converse Drill  
                        (Meaningful Drill)

          Instructions:    Respond  to  the  following  questions  

     #1a  Cue:      Who is sitting on your left ?

          Response: Mary is.

     #1b  Cue:      So you ....

          Response: So I am sitting on Mary's right.

     #2a  Cue:      Who is sitting on your right ?

          Response: Sue is.

     #2b  Cue:      So you ...

          Response: So I am sitting on Sue's left.

     #3   Cue:      Mary  and Sue are sitting on either  side  of  
                    you, so you ...

          Response: So I am sitting between Mary and Sue.

                    (Dakin, 1973, p.78) 

                        (Meaningful Drill)

          Instructions:   Respond  to the information  using  the  
                    form:  It/he is now -----.

     #1   Cue:      The cat has been killed.

          Response: It is now dead.

     #2   Cue:      Frankenstein's monster has escaped.

          Response: He is now free.

     #3   Cue:      Harold has got what he wanted.

          Response: He is now  content.

                         (Dakin, 1973, p.79) 

    3.106     Original Example:  Replacement   

          Instructions:  Replace   the  direct  object   by   the  
                         appropriate pronoun.

    #1        Model:         I am buying the typwriter

              Response:      I am buying it.

    #2        Model:        [I am buying the books.]

              Response:     [I am buying them.]

                              (Stack, 1971, p. 144)

    3.111     Example:  Replacement Drill  

     Instructions:  Replace the appropriate phrase with "y"

     #1     Model:         Allons au cine'ma.

            Response:      Allons-y.

     #2     Model:        [Allons a` la gare.]

            Response:     [Allons-y.]
                         (Stack, 1971, p. 145)

          Instructions:  Replace  the  number by the next  higher  

    #1        Model:         Paul has twelve records

              Response:      Paul has thirteen records.

    #2        Model:        [Sue bought three cars.]

              Response:     [Sue bought four cars.]

                              (Stack, 1971, p. 146)

    3.115     Example:  Replacement  (Adverbs of Quantity)

     Instructions:  Replace the adverb of quantity with "beaucoup  

     Il a   peu de      livres.
            beaucoup de 

    3.116 Example  Transformation Drill   

     Instructions:  Change the verb to the future tense:

     #1   Model:    He's working at the store.
          Response: He'll work at the store

     #2   Model:   [I'm walking to work.]

          Response:[I'll walk to work.]

                         (Stack,  1971, p. 147)

     Instructions:  Change to the passe' compose'.

     #1   Model:    Alain commande un bon diner.

          Response: Alain a commande' un bon di^ner hier.

     #2    Model:  [Roger parle a` ses amis.]

           Response:[Roger a parle' a` ses amis hier.]

                    (Stack, 1971, p. 147)

    3.118     Example:  Transformation:  directed increment
     #1   Model:    Si Paul est fatigue'...

          Cue:      Il se repose.

          Response: Si Paul est fatigue' il se reposera.

     #2    Model:   [Si Marie est chanceuse...]

           Cue:     [Elle gagne.]

           Response:[Si Marie est chanceuse elle gagnera.]

                    (Stack, 1971, p. 148)

    3.120     Example:  Transformation:  negation

     Instructions:  Make the statement negative.

     #1   Model:    They're reading.

          Response: They're not reading
                   [They aren't reading]
                   [They are not reading]
     #2    Model:  [He's walking.]
           Response:[He's not walking.]
                    [He isn't walking.]
                    [He is not walking.]

                    (Stack, 1971, p. 149)

      Instructions: [Make the following sentences comparative.]

     #1   Model:    Este reloj es bonito.

          Response: Este reloj es ma's bonito.

     #2    Model:   [Esta casa es grande.]

           Response:[Esta casa es ma's grande.]

     Complication:  buen->mejor

                    (Stack, 1971, p. 154)

    3.127     Example:  Transformation:  word order  

     Instructions:  Begin each sentence with the adverb.

     #1   Model:    Der Brunnen ist tief.

          Response: Tief ist der Brunnen.

     #2    Model:  [Der Antwort war falsch.]

          Response:[Falsch war der Antwort.]

                    (Stack, 1971, p. 155)

    3.129     Example:  Question Formation  

     Instructions:  Make a question by inversion

     #1   Model:    Nous allons en ville.

          Response: Allons-nous en ville?

     #2    Model:  [Vous allez a` la campagne.]

          Response:[Allez-vous a` la campagne?]

                         (Stack, 1971, p. 157)

         Basic Utterance:    He doesn't study.

    #1   Fragment Cue:       She

         Response:           She doesn't study.

    #2   Fragment Cue:       They

         Response:           They don't study.

    #3   Slot Change:        read

         Response:           They don't read.

         (Return to Main Point)
    #4   Fragment Cue:       He

         Response:           He doesn't read.

                             (Stack, 1971, p. 158)

    3.131     Example:  Paired Sentence: relative pronouns

     Instructions:  Combine the two short sentences into a single  
                    sentence using a relative pronoun.

     #1   Model:    The man is a doctor.

          Cue:      I saw the man last night.

          Response: The man      I saw last night is a doctor.

                    (Stack, 1971, p. 131)

     Instructions:  Join  the  following two  sentences  together  
                    using "if..."

     #1   Model:    The weather is nice.  I am going downtown.

          Cue:      If...

          Response: If the weather is nice, I will go downtown
                   [If the weather were nice, I would go 
                   [If the weather is nice, I will be going 
                   [If the weather were nice, I would be going 

                         (Stack, 1971, p. 163)

    3.134     Example:  Paired Sentences: tense linkages

     Instructions:  Combine the two sentences,  putting the first  
                    verb  into the imperfect and the second  verb  
                    into the passe' compose'.

     #1   Model:    Alain e'tudie.  Je rentre.

          Response: Alain e'tudiait quand je suis rentre'.

     #2    Model:   [Marc parle.   Roger vient.]

           Response:[Marc parlait quand Roger est venu.]

                    (Stack, 1971, p. 164)

          Instructions:  Respond to the question according to the  
                         model:  "The boy speaks politely"

     #1   Model:    The boy is polite.

          Cue:      How does he speak?

          Response: The boy speaks politely.

     #2   Model:   [The girl is careful.]

          Cue:     [How does she walk?]

          Response: [The girl walks carefully.]

                              (Stack, 1971, p.165)

    3.140     Example:  Fixed Increment Drill    

     Instructions:  Complete  each  sentence  by  adding  "hablar  

     #1   Cue:      El aprende ...

          Response: El aprende a hablar espan~ol.

     #2   Cue:     [El recuerda]

          Response: [El recuerda de hablar espan~ol.]

     #3   Cue:     [Le gusta ...]

          Response: [Le gusta hablar espan~ol.]
                                   (Stack, 1971, p. 169)

     Instructions:  Respond   in the affirmative using the  model  
                    "........ too."

     #1   Model:    I read a lot of books.
          Cue:      How about Paul?

          Response: Paul reads a lot of books too.

     #2   Model:    [They eat a lot.]

          Cue:      [How about Carol?]

          Response: [Carol eats a lot too.]

                         (Stack,  1971, p. 171)

    3.143 Example  Analogy Drill - Tag Questions  

     Instructions:  Apply the adjective used in the first half of  
                    each  sentence  to the noun suggested in  the  
                    second half.

     #1   Model:    La pluma es negra.
          Cue:      Y el la'piz?

          Response: El la'piz es negro.

     #2   Model:    [El profesor es alto]

          Cue:      [Y la profesora?]

          Response: [La profesora es alta]

                         (Stack,  1971, p. 177)

      Instructions:      Answer   the  questions   affirmatively,  
                         using "I".

     #1   Model:    Do you like music?

          Response: Yes, I like music.
                    Yes, I do.

     #2   Model:    Do you attend the Sunday concerts?

          Response: Yes, I attend.
                    Yes, I attend them.
                    Yes, I attend the Sunday concerts.
                    Yes, I do.

                    (Stack, 1971, p. 179)

    3.145     Example:  Question Drill: narration sequence

     Context:  (Story:  Little Red Riding Hood)

      Instructions: Answer the questions truthfully.

     #1   Model:    Did she like her red cape?

          Response: Yes, she liked it.
                    Yes, she did.
                    Yes, she liked her red cape.
     #2   Model:    Did she use the Cadillac?

          Response: No, she didn't use it.
                    No, she didn't.
                    No, she didn't use the Cadillac.
                    No, she didn't have a car.

                    (Stack, 1971, p. 180)

     Instructions:  Answer affirmatively using the cue word.

     #1   Model:    Does Robert study his lessons?

          Cue:      always.

          Response: Yes, he always studies his lessons.

     #2   Model:    Does George work on Sundays?

          Cue:      sometimes

          Response: Yes, he sometimes works on Sundays.

                    (Stack, 1971, p. 181)

    3.150      Example:  Non-Communicative Interchange   

           Instructions:      Change the sentence from present to  
                              past tense
          Model:    He writes a lot of essays.

          Cue:      He wrote a lot of essays.

                                   (Beile, 1979, p. 115)          

    3.151     Example:  Isolated Communicative Interchanges
      Instructions: Ask  a yes/no question based on the statement  

     #1   Model:    I've always wanted to run a garage.

          Response: Have you ?

     #2   Model:    Mr.  Sharp's  talking to the  directors  this  

          Response: Is he ?

                         (Beile, 1979, p. 115)
                         situational context   

          Context:  John  is  trying to carry on  a  conversation  
                    with Colin.

          Instructions:  But whatever he says, Colin only gives a  
                         polite reply:

     #1   Model:    I've always wanted to run a garage.

          Response: Have you ?

     #2   Model:    Mr.  Sharp's  talking to the  directors  this  

          Response: Is he ?

                         (Beile, 1979, p. 116)

    3.153     Example:  Connected communicative interchanges
     #1   Cue:      Ask Helen whether she likes playing tennis.

          Response: Do you like playing tennis, Helen ?

     #2   Cue:      Ask  Thomas  whether he enjoys  listening  to  
                    classical music

          Response: Do  you  enjoy listening to classical  music,  
                    Thomas ?

                              (Beile, 1979, p. 116)
                          situational context     

          Context:  Linda's ill.   She's in bed.   Mrs. Scott has  
                    got some hot tea for her.

          Instructions:    Take  Linda's  part.   You don't  want  

     #1   Model:    I've got some hot tea for you, Linda.

          Response: I don't want any hot tea.

     #2   Model:    Then have some milk.

          Response: I don't want any milk.

                        (Beile, 1979, p. 117)

    3.155     Example:  No Contextualisation (Non Communicative)
     Instruction: [Describe  what  the person sells,  using  the  
                    model:    The XXXr XXXes object.]

     #1   Cue:      baker

          Response: The baker bakes bread.

     #2   Cue:      greengrocer

          Response: The greengrocer sells fruit and vegetables.

                              (Beile, 1979, p.121)

    3.156     Example:  Dialog-like: Not Contextualisable

     *Instruction:  Answer the questions

     #1   Model:    What does the baker do ?
          Response: The baker bakes bread.

     #2   Model:    What does the greengrocer do ?

          Response: The greengrocer sells fruit and vegetables.

                    (Beile, 1979, p. 121)

    *Instruction:   Answer the question by stating that you  "do"  
                    your own.

     #1   Model:    Where do you buy your bread ?

          Response: We bake our own bread.

          Model:    Which greengrocer to you go to ?

          Response: We grow our own fruit and vegetables.

                    (Beile, 1979, p. 121)

    3.158     Example:  Manipulative Drill  

           Instructions: Place the words in the correct places.

     #1   Model:    We  have  ---- milk,  but we don't have  ----  

          Cue:      some/any

          Response: We  have  some milk,  but we don't  have  any  

     #2   Model:    We  don't  have ---- milk,  but we have  ----  

          Cue:      some/any

          Response: We  don't  have any milk,  but we  have  some  

                         (Robinett, 1978, p. 210)

      Instructions: Choose the correct word for each case

     #1   Model:    I'd like ---- eggs, please.

          Cue:      some/any

          Response: I'd like some eggs, please.

     #2   Model:    I'm sorry, there aren't ---- left.

          Cue:      some/any

          Response: I'm sorry, there aren't any left.     

     #3   Model:    Do you have ---- milk or ---- cream ?

          Cue:      some/any

          Response: Do you have some milk or some cream ?
                                any          any                    

                         (Robinett, 1978, p. 211)

    3.160     Example:  Meaningful Drill-1  (unpatterned)

     Context:       A  narration describing Robert's visit  to  a  

     Instructions:  Respond to the questions truthfully.

     #1   Model:    Where did Robert go ?

          Response: He went to a restaurant.  

     #2   Model:    When did he arrive ?

          Response: He arrived at seven-thirty.

     #3   Model:    Where did he find a table ?

          Response: He found a table near the window.

                         (Stack, 1971, p. 136)

     Instructions: Respond to the situations appropriately using  
               the model:  "You must ..."

     #1   Cue:      My pencil-point is broken.

          Response: You must sharpen it.

     #2   Cue:      My hair is too long.

          Response: You must get it cut.

     #3   Cue:      My phone is ringing.

          Response: You must answer it.

                         (Stack, 1971, p. 137)

Converted from the original Wordstar format and placed in Html package
Roger Kenner, 2006
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